ارزیابی و مقایسه برخی از خواص شیمیایی دانه کنجد و بذرک

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم و مهندسی صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار دانشکده علوم و مهندسی صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: دانه کنجد و بذرک منابعی غنی از اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع و ضروری هستند و از دیرباز به دلیل خصوصیات منحصربه­فرد تغذیه‌ای توجه بسیاری از دانشمندان علم غذا را به خود جلب کرده‌اند. در این تحقیق برخی از خواص شیمیایی دانه کنجد و بذرک با یکدیگر مقایسه شده است.
مواد و روش‌ها: دانه کنجد و بذرک به طور کاملاً تصادفی خریداری شد، سپس به صورت جداگانه آسیاب گردید و میزان چربی، پروتئین، فیبر و خاکستر آن ها اندازه­گیری شد. درصد روغن به روش سوکسله اندازه­گیری شد. به منظور تعیین ترکیب اسیدهای چرب، اندیس اسیدی، اندیس پراکسید، اندیس توتوکس، اندیس آنیزیدین و میزان مقاومت اکسیداتیو، روغن دانه­ها به روش سرد توسط حلال n- هگزان استخراج شد.
یافته‌ها: براساس مطالعه انجام شده، میزان پروتئین، فیبر، خاکستر و اندیس اسیدی به طور معنی­داری در دانه بذرک بیشتر از دانه کنجد بود (01/0P<). در حالی که میزان روغن، اندیس توتوکس، اندیس آنیزیدین و میزان مقاومت اکسیداتیو در دانه بذرک به طور معنی­داری کمتر از دانه کنجد بود. در مورد اندیس پراکسید، تفاوتی بین نمونه­ها مشاهده نشد. آنالیز اسیدهای چرب نشان داد که لینولئیک اسید (6ω-) و لینولنیک اسید (3ω-) به ترتیب عمده­ترین اسیدهای چرب موجود در دانه کنجد و بذرک می­باشند.
نتیجه­گیری: نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که دانه­ کنجد و بذرک منابعی غنی از اسیدهای چرب ضروری، پروتئین، فیبر، مواد معدنی و سایر مواد مغذی می­باشند. بنابراین می­توان از آن­ها به عنوان منابع روغنی ارزشمند در فرمولاسیون مواد غذایی استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation and Comparison of Some Chemical Properties of Sesame Seed and Flaxseed

نویسندگان [English]

  • SH. Momeni 1
  • B Ghiassi Tarzi 2
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Sesame seed and flaxseed are rich sources of the essential fatty acids and due
to their unique nutritional characteristics valuable research works have been carried out on
these oil seeds. In this study, some of the chemical characteristic of sesame and flaxseed are
evaluated and compared to each other.
Materials and Methods: Sesame and flaxseed were purchased randomly from Grand Bazaar
of Tehran. The fat, fiber, protein and ash contents were determined by standard methods of
evaluation. The cold press hexane extracted oil was subjected to series of tests consisting of
fatty acid composition, Peroxide, acids, totax and anisidine values. The induction period, the
oil resistance to oxidation was also measured.
Results: This study indicated that the amounts of protein, fiber, ash and acid value in the
flaxseed were significantly higher (P<0.01) while the amount of oil content, totox and
anisidine values and resistant to oxidation were significantly lower in the flaxseed as
compared to the sesame seed. In respect of peroxide index, there was no difference between
the examined samples. The fatty acid analysis showed that linoleic acid (W6) and linolenic
acid (W-3), were the predominant fatty acids in sesame seed and flaxseed oils respectively.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that sesame seed and flaxseed are rich sources
of essential fatty acids, proteins, fiber, minerals and other nutrients. Thus, the extracted oils
might be considered valuable oil resources and might be employed in food formulations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chemical properties
  • Fatty Acid Composition
  • Fiber
  • Flaxseed
  • Sesame
قوامی، م.، قراچورلو، م. و  غیاثی­طرزی، ب. (1387). تکنیک­های آزمایشگاهی روغن­ها و چربی­ها. چاپ اول
AACC, (1999). Approved Method of The American Association of Cereal Chemists. St. Paul, MN: American Accociation of Cereal Chemists.Ins.
Abou-Gharbia, H. A., Shehata, A. A. Y. & Shahidi, F. (2000). Effect of processing on oxidative stability and lipid classes of sesame oil. Food Research International. 33: 331-340.
Al-Rashdan, A., Helaleh, M. I. H., Nisar, A., Ibtisam, A. & Al-Ballam, Z. (2010). Determination Of The Levels Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Toasted Bread Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 216-314.
AOAC, (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. AOAC International. 18Th Edition. Chapter 32 and 41.
Bashir, S., Masud, T. & Latif, A. (2006). Effect of flaxseed (linum usitatissimum) on the baking properties of cakes and cookies. International Journal of Agricultural Research. 1(5): 496-502.
Bhupathiraju, S. N. & Tucker, K. L. (2011). Coronary heart disease prevention: nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns. Clinica Chimica Acta. 412: 1493-1514.
Bravi, E., Perretti, G., Marconi, O., Patrizi, E. & Fantozzi, P. (2011). Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside determination in flaxseed (linum usitatissimum l.) Oil and application to a shelf life study. Food Chemistry. 126: 1553-1558.
Choo, W. S., Birch, J. & Dufour, J. P. (2007). Physicochemical and quality characteristics of cold-pressed flaxseed oils. Journal of Food Composition And Analysis. 20: 202-211.
deMan, J. M. (1999), Principles of food chemistry (Third Edition), Aspen Publishers, Inc. Gaithersburg, Maryland. 33-110.
Desphande, S. S., Desphande, U. S. & Salunkhe, D. K. (1996). In Y. H. Hui (Ed.), Sesame oil, in bailey’s industrial oil and fat products (5th ed., pp. 457-497). New York: Interscience Publishers.
Elif Bilek, A. & Turhan, S. (2009). Enhancement of the nutritional status of beef patties by adding flaxseed flour. Meat Science. 82: 472-477.
Elleuch, M., Besbes, S., Roiseux, O., Blecker, C. & Attia, H. (2007). Quality characteristics of sesame seeds and by-products. Food Chemistry. 103: 641-650.
Firestone, D. (1994). Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists Society, 4th ed. AOCS Press, ChamPaiyn, IL, USA.
Firestone, D. (1997). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15 th edn., Arlington, USA.
Gunstone, F. D. (2004). Nutritional Properties. The Chemistry of Oils and Fats: Sources, Composition, Properties and Uses. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 104.
Herchi, W., Bouali, I., Bahashwan, S., Rochut, S., Boukhchina, S., Kallel, H. & Pepe, C. (2012). Changes in phospholipid composition, protein content and chemical propertiesof flaxseed oil during development. Plant Physiology And Biochemistry. 54: 1-5.
Hosseinian, F. S., Muir, A. D., Westcott, N. D. & Krol, E. S. (2006). Antioxidant Capacity of Flaxseed Lignans in Two Model Systems.
Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 83: 835-840.
Hussain, S., Anjum, F. M., Butt, M. S., Khan, M. I. & Asghar, A. (2006). Physical and Sensoric Attributes of Flaxseed Flour Supplemented Cookies. Turkish Journal of Biology. 30: 87-92.
Hwang, L. S. (2005). Sesame Oil. In: Bailey’s Industrial Oil And Fat Products, Volume 2. Edible Oil And Fat Products: Edible Oils. John Wiley & Sons Inc Publication. 537-576.
Hyvärinen, H. K., Pihlava, J. M., Hiidenhovi, J. A., Hietaniemi, V., Korhonen, H. J. T. & Ryhänen, E. L. (2006). Effect of Processing and Storage on the Stability of Flaxseed Lignan Added to Bakery Products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54: 48-53.
Kochhar, S. P. (2002). Sesame, Rice-Bran And Flaxseed Oils. In: Vegetable Oils In Food Technology: Composition, Properties And Uses. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 326-397.
Lopez-Huertas, E. (2010). Health effects of oleic acid and long chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) enriched milks. A review of intervention studies. Pharmacological Research. 61: 200-207.
Madhusudhan, B. (2009). Potential benefi ts of flaxseed in health and disease - a perspective. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus. 74: 67-72.
Mahan, L. K. & Escott-Stump, S. (2008). Krauses Food And Nutrition Therapy.
Makni, M., Fetoui, H., Gargouri, N. K., Garoui, E. & Zeghal, N. (2010). Antidiabetic effect of flax and pumpkin seed mixture powder: effect on hyperlipidemia and antioxidant status in alloxan diabetic rats. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. 1-7.
Mohdaly, A. A., Smetanska, I., Ramadan, M. F., Sarhan, M. A. & Mahmoud, A. M., (2011), Antioxidant potential of sesame (Sesamum indicum) cake extract in stabilization of sunflower and soybean oils, Industrial Crops and Products. 34 : 952– 959.
Oomah, B. D. & Mazza, G. (1993). Flaxseed Proteins: A Review. Food Chemistry.  48:109-114.
Rangkadilok, N., Pholphana, N., Mahidol, C., Wongyai, W., Saengsooksree, K., Nookabkaew, S. & Satayavivad, J. (2010). Variation of sesamin, sesamolin and tocopherols in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds and oil products in Thailand. Food Chemistry. 122: 724-730.
Rendón-Villalobos, J. R., Bello-Pérez, L. A., Agama-Acevedo, E., Islas-Hernández, J. J., Osorio-Díaz, P. & Tovar, J. (2009). Composition and characteristics of oil extracted from flaxseed-added corn tortilla. Food Chemistry. 117: 83-87.
Ridges, L., Sunderland, R., Moerman, K., Meyer, B., Astheimer, L. & Howe, P. (2001). Cholesterol lowering benefits of soy and linseed enriched foods. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 10(3): 204-211.
Serna-Saldivar, S. O., Zorrilla, R., De La Parra, C., Stagnitti, G. & Abril, R. (2006). Effect Of DHA Containing Oils And Powders On Baking Performance And Quality Of White Pan Bread. Plant Foods For Human Nutrition. 61(3): 121-9.
Shahidi, F. (2005). Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products (Sixth Edition). John Wiley And     Sons Inc.
Simopoulos, A. P. (2004). Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in edible wild plants. Biological Research. 37(2): 263-77.
Talpur, F. N., Bhanger, M. I. & Khuhawar, M. Y. (2006). Comparison of fatty acids and cholesterol content in the milk of Pakistani cow breeds. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19: 698-703.
Vaughan, J. G. & Geissler, C. A. (2009). Oilseeds And Fruits, Olive, Sesame, Peanuts. In: The New Oxford Book Of Food Plants. Oxford University Press.
Vijaimohan, K., Jainu, M., Sabitha, K. E., Subramaniyam, S., Anandhan, C. & Shyamala-Devi, C. S. (2006). Beneficial effects of alpha linolenic acid rich flaxseed oil on growth performance and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed rats. Life Sciences. 79: 448-454.
Were, B. A., Onkware, A. O., Gudu, S., Welander, M. & Carlsson, A. S. (2006). Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in East African sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) accessions evaluated over 3 years. Field Crops Research. 97: 254-260.
Yamashita, K., Nohara, Y., Katayama, K. & Namiki, M. (1992). Sesame Seed Lignans and γ-Tocopherol Act Synergistically to Produce Vitamin E Activity in Rats. Journal of Nutrition. 122: 2440-2446.
Zhang, Z. S., Wang, L. J., Li, D., Jiao, S. S., Chen, X. D. & Mao, Z. H., (2008). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from flaxseed. Separation and Purification Technology. 62 : 192–198.
Ziolkovska, A. (2012). Laws of flaxseed mucilage extraction. Food Hydrocolloids. 26: 197-204.