Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of pasta enriched with saffron waste

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student of Food Industrial Science and Engineering, Noor Branch, Islamic Azad University, Noor, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Food Science and Technology Research Center of East Golestan, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran

3 Department of Food Chemistry, Research Institute of Food Sciences and Industries, Mashhad, Iran

4 Assistant Professor of the Department of Financial Statistics and Mathematics, Noor Branch, Islamic Azad University, Noor, Iran



Introduction: The super-beneficial food contains compounds with biological activity that promote health. Pasta is a suitable carrier for adding nutrients from various agricultural wastes. Nowadays, the use of synthetic antioxidants is limited due to the risks they have for health, therefore, the effort to find natural antioxidants of plant origin has increased.
Materials and Methods: Based on the formulation, the effect of adding 0 to 0.5 percent of saffron residues, including petals, yellow stamens, and white roots, on the physicochemical, antioxidant, texture, and sensory properties by comparing averages using Duncan's test was performed at a confidence level of 95% using SPSS version 19 software and the analysis of the data obtained from the treatments of di-optimal mixed design was carried out using Design Expert software. The standard was checked in the form of di-optimal mixed design.
Results: During the analysis of the results after optimization, from the total of 0.5% of the remaining saffron, the values ​​of 0.072% of the petal share, 0.028% of the white root share and 0.4% of the flag share were suggested by the software.
Conclusion: The addition of saffron residue had no significant effect on the amount of moisture, water-soluble solids, weight and pH after cooking, while a significant effect was observed on the amount of total phenol, antioxidant, and anthocyanin, as well as the pasta texture. Enriched had less strength than the control sample and no significant difference was observed in sensory properties. Therefore, the addition of saffron residues while maintaining the physicochemical and sensory properties is important in the production of beneficial pasta.


Akhondzadeh,A., Hosseinighaboos,S.S.(2016). Optimization of Functional pasta Formulation Containing pumpkin powder and barley malt. thesis for the degree of M.Sc. in Food Science and Technology. Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran. Pp.101.[in Persian].
Amanpour, A., Sonmezdag, A. S., Kelebek, H., & Selli, S. (2015). GC–MS–olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Food chemistry, 182, 251-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.005
Armellini, R., Peinado, I., Pittia, P., Scampicchio, M., Heredia, A., & Andres, A. (2018). Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) enrichment on antioxidant and sensorial properties of wheat flour pasta. Journal of Food chemistry, 254, 55-63.
Bagherzade, G., & Manzaritavakoli, M. (2017). Qualitative and Quantitative Investigation of Phytochemical Factors of Wastage of CrocusSativus L. and Determination of Anthocyanin Content using Ultrasound Waves. Journal of Saffron Research, 4(2), 149-158.  [in Persian]. https://doi.org/10.22077/jsr.2017.516
Bergman, C., Gualberto, D., & Weber, C. (1994). Development of a high-temperature-dried soft wheat pasta supplemented with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Cooking quality, color, and sensory evaluation. Journal of Cereal Chemistry, 71(6), 523-527.  
Cedola, A., Cardinali, A., D'Antuono, I., Conte, A., & Del Nobile, M. A. (2020). Cereal foods fortified with by-products from the olive oil industry. Food Bioscience, 33, 100490.
Choy, A.-L., May, B. K., & Small, D. M. (2012). The effects of acetylated potato starch and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose on the quality of instant fried noodles. Journal of Food hydrocolloids, 26(1), 2-8.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.02.001
Dexter, J., Doust, M., Raciti, C., Lombardo, G., Clarke, F., Clarke, J., et al.,  Hatcher, D. (2004). Effect of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) semolina extraction rate on semolina refinement, strength indicators and pasta properties. Canadian journal of plant science, 84(4), 1001-1013.  https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/abs/10.4141/P03-205
Fuentes-Zaragoza, E., Riquelme-Navarrete, M., Sánchez-Zapata, E., & Pérez-Álvarez, J. (2010). Resistant starch as functional ingredient: A review. journal of Food Research International, 43(4), 931-942. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.02.004
Giusti, M. M., & Wrolstad, R. E. (2003). Acylated anthocyanins from edible sources and their applications in food systems. Biochemical engineering journal, 14(3), 217-225.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-703X(02)00221-8
Heim, K. E., Tagliaferro, A. R., & Bobilya, D. J. (2002). Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 13(10), 572-584. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(02)00208-5
Iranian National Standardization Organization. (2008). Cereals, pulses and by products - Determination of ash yeild by incineration. (ISIRI Standard No. 2706). Retrieved from http://standard.isiri.gov.ir/StandardView.aspx?Id=12277. [in Persian].
Iranian National Standardization Organization. (2009). Macaroni - Specifications and test methods. (ISIRI Standard No. 213). Retrieved from
           http://standard.isiri.gov.ir/StandardView.aspx?Id=12277. [in Persian].
Iranian National Standardization Organization. (2010). Cereal and cereal products-Determination of moisture content - Reference method. (ISIRI Standard No. 2705). Retrieved from http://standard.isiri.gov.ir/StandardView.aspx?Id=12277. [in Persian].
Iranian National Standardization Organization. (2019). Biscuit - Specifications and test methods. (ISIRI Standard No. 37). Retrieved from
Jalilvand,M., Hosseinighaboos,S.S.(2016). Optimization of Functional pasta Formulation Containing pumpkin powder. thesis for the degree of M.Sc. in Food Science and Technology. Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran.pp.73. [in Persian].
Kosar, M., Goger, F., & Baser, K. H. C. (2011). In vitro antioxidant properties and phenolic composition of Salvia halophila Hedge from Turkey. journal of Food chemistry, 129(2), 374-379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.04.086
Lee, E., Wylie, E., & Metcalf, C. (2007). Ultrasound imaging features of radial scars of the breast. Australasian Radiology, 51(3), 240-245. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1673.2007.01719.x
Lee, J., Durst, R. W., Wrolstad, R. E., Kupina, C., & JD (2005). Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: collaborative study. Journal of AOAC international, 88(5), 1269-1278.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/88.5.1269
McDonald, S., Prenzler, P. D., Antolovich, M., & Robards, K. (2001). Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extracts. Journal of Food chemistry, 73 (1), 73-84.
Naji‐Tabasi, S., Niazmand, R., & Modiri‐Dovom, A. (2021). Application of mucilaginous seeds (Alyssum homolocarpum and Salvia macrosiphon Boiss) and wheat bran in improving technological and nutritional properties of pasta. Journal of Food Science, 86(6), 2288-2299.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15762
Naseri, A. R., Taslimi, A., Seyedin, S. M., Haratiyan, P., Abadi, A. R. (2009). Study of the effect of soy protein isolate on macaroni characteristics . Quarterly Journal of Food Science & Technology, 6(2), 1-11. [in Persian]. https://fsct.modares.ac.ir/article-7-8269-en.pdf
NematiMalek,Z., Hosseinighaboos,S.S.(2016). Optimization of Functional spaghetti Formulation Containing pumpkin powder. thesis for the degree of M.Sc. in Food Science and Technology. Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran.pp.75. [in Persian].
Niazmand, R., Naji-Tabasi, S., Modiri, A., & Jahani, M. (2019). Evaluation of physicochemical, textural and cooking characteristics of enriched spaghetti with barley bran and xanthan gum. Journal of Research and Innovation in Food Science and Technology, 8(1), 91-110.  [in Persian]. DOI:10.22101 /JRIFST.2019.04.30.818
Norbaek, R., Brandt, K., Nielsen, J. K., orgaard, M., & Jacobsen, N. (2002). Flower pigment composition of Crocus species and cultivars used for a chemotaxonomic investigation. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 30(8):1, 763-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-1978(02)00020-0
 Petitot, M., Boyer, L., Minier, C., & Micard, V. (2010). Fortification of pasta with split pea and faba bean flours: Pasta processing and quality evaluation. Food Research International, 43(2), 634-641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.07.020
Rouhani, R., Einafshar, S., & Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel, R. (2015). Study of anthocyanin and antionidant compounds derived ethanol extract saffron flag with the help of ultrasound technology. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 11(2), 161-170.  [in Persian]. https://doi.org/10.22067/ifstrj.v1394i2.47043
Shogren, R., Hareland, G., & Wu, Y. (2006). Sensory evaluation and composition of spaghetti fortified with soy flour. Journal of Food Science, 71(6), 428-432.  
Sozer, N., Dalgıç, A., & Kaya, A. (2007). Thermal, textural and cooking properties of spaghetti enriched with resistant starch. Journal of Food Engineering, 81(2), 476-484.