The Effect of Active Modified Atmosphere Packaging with Different Gas Composition on Physicochemical and Nutritional Compounds of (Agaricus bisporus) Mushroom

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran.

3 PhD in Food Science, Food and Drug Organization, Tehran, Iran.


Introduction: Today, mushrooms are used as a common food source in many countries. Edible mushrooms have a low shelf life. The aim of this study was to use modified atmosphere packaging with different ratios on the shelf life and nutritional value of button mushrooms.
Materials and Methods: In this research, the mushroom samples were placed in polypropylene-covered packages, and the packaged were filled with gas mixtures of 100% oxygen, 25% oxygen with 75% nitrogen, 50% oxygen with 50% nitrogen, and also 25% oxygen, 25 the percentage of carbon dioxide and 50% of nitrogen were filled and packed. The control sample was button mushroom packed with polypropylene cover and without modified atmosphere (control).The investigated characteristics included the percentage of weight loss, the percentage of free amino acids, the percentage of ascorbic acid, the concentration of polysaccharides, the intensity of respiration, the ripening index, the browning coefficient, colorimetric characteristics and sensory characteristics on the first, fifth, tenth and fifteenth days of storage at 4ºC was evaluated.
Results: The results showed that the weight loss indexes, free amino acids, ascorbic acid and brightness index of button mushroom significantly (p≤0.05) decreased during storage, and respiratory rate, browning coefficient, jaundice, and redness significantly (p≤0.05) increased. All sensory indicators of texture, spoilage and bad smell, appearance color and overall acceptance also faced a significant decrease during 15 days of packaging (p≤0.05). Among button mushroom treatments, gaseous conditions of 25% oxygen, 25% carbon dioxide and 50% nitrogen had the least amount of changes during the storage time compared to the first day and showed a higher ability to protect button mushroom, and the control treatment had the highest Drop rate over time. Also, the treatment of 25% oxygen with 75% nitrogen and the treatment of 50% oxygen with 50% nitrogen did not show significant differences during 15 days of storage (p>0.05).
         Conclusion: Finally, packaging with gaseous conditions of 25% oxygen, 25% carbon dioxide and 50% nitrogen was introduced as the optimal treatment.


Ahmadi, M., Davarinejad, G. H., Azizi, M., Sadaqat, N. & Tehranifar, A. (2008). The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on quality characteristics and increasing the shelf life of two varieties of cherry, Journal of Horticultural Sciences (Agricultural Sciences and Industries), 22(2), 156-166. [In Persian].
Antmann, G., Ares, G., Lema, P. & Lareo, C. (2008). Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on sensory quality of shiitake mushrooms, Postharvest Biology and Technology, 49, 164-170.
Ares, G., Parentelli, C., Gámbaro, A., Lareo,‌ C. & Lema, P. (2006) Sensory shelf life of
shiitake mushrooms stored under passive modified atmosphere, Postharvest Biology and Technology, 41, 191-197.
Castellanosa, D. A.,  Polaníaa, W. &  Herreraa, A. O. (2016). Development of an equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging (EMAP) for feijoa fruits and modeling firmness and color evolution, Postharvest Biology and Technology, 120, 193–203.
Charles, F., Guillaume, C. & Gontard, N. (2008) Effect of passive and active modified
atmosphere packaging on quality changes of fresh endives, Postharvest Biology
and Technology, 48, 22-29.
Colgecen, I. & Seckin, M. (2015). The efficacy of the combined use of chlorine dioxide and passive modified atmosphere packaging on sweet cherry quality. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 109, 10–19.
Costa, C., Lucera, A., Conte, A., Mastromatteo, M., Speranza, B., Antonacci, A. & Del
Nobile, M. A. (2011), Effects of passive and active modified atmosphere packaging
conditions on ready-to-eat table grape. Journal of Food Engineering, 102, 115-121.
Devece, C., Rodrigues-Lopes., J.N., Fenoll, L.G., Tudela, J., Catalá, J.M. & De Los Reyes, E. (1999).  Enzyme inactivation analysis for industrial blanching applications: comparison of microwave, conventional, and combination heat treatments on mushroom polyphenoloxidase activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 47(11), 4506–4511.
Fakharian, N., Hassanpour Asil, M. & Samizadeh Lahiji, H.A. (2008). Effects of temperature, thickness of polypropylene coating and packaging with modified woven atmosphere on the shelf life of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L). Journal of Horticultural Sciences (Agricultural Sciences and Industries), 22 (2), 133-145. [In Persian]
Guillame, C., Schwabm, L. & Gontard, N. (2010). Biobased packaging for improving preservation of fresh common mushroom (Agaricus bisporous). Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 11, 690-696.
Hamtian Sorki, A., Qiafe Davoudi, M., Tabatabai Yazdi, F., Mortazavi, A., Karimi, M., Razavizadegan Jahormi, H. & Porfarzad, A. (2011). Investigating the effect of packaging type and modified atmosphere on the characteristics of Berber bread enriched with whole soybean flour. Quarterly Journal of Food Science and Industry, 36 (9), 55-79.
Huang, S., Li, R., Zhang, Z., Li, L. GU, X., Fan, W., Lucas, W. & Wang, X. (2009). The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. Nature genetics, 41 (12), 1275–1281.
Jiang. T., Feng. L. & Li, J. (2012). Changes in microbial and postharvest quality of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) treated with chitosan-glucose complex coating under cold storage. Food Chemistry, 131, 780-786.
Karimi, N. & Musharraf, L. (2014). The effect of active packaging with polyvinyl chloride coating on marketability of button mushroom, Quarterly Journal of Food Science and Industry, 48 (12), 61-70. [In Persian]
Kamali, A., Ahmadzadeh, M., Sadeghi, A. & Karimi, A. (2015). Effect of external ectoine and hydroxyectoine on some antifungal activities of Pseudomonas fluorescens UTPF5 in saline conditions. Quarterly Journal of Biology of Microorganisms, 5(17) 48-35. [In Persian]
Khazraei, M., Jihadi, M., Fazel, M. & Allameh, A. (2013). Investigating the effect of chitosan-lemon essential oil coating on the shelf life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), Food Science and Nutrition, 13 (1), 35-46. [In Persian]
Kim, K.M., Park, H.J. & Hanna, M.A. (2006). Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf-life of coated, whole and sliced mushrooms, LWT-Food Science and Technology, 39 (4), 365-372.
Kim,  M.U.Y.,Chung, I.M., Lee,  S.J., Ahn,  J.K., Ki,  M.J., Kim, S.L., Moon, H.I., Ro, H.M., Kang, E.Y., Seo, S.H. & Song, H.K. (2009). Comparision of free amino acid, carbohydrates concentrations in Korean edible and mechanical mushrooms. Food Chemistry, 113, 386-393.
Kramer, A. & Twigg, B.A. (1966). Quality control for the food industry.AVI publishing Company, 54.
Lopez-Briones, G., Varoquaux, P., Chambroy, Y., Bouquant, J., Bureau, G. & Pascat. B. (1992). Storage of common mushroom under controlled atmospheres, International Food Technology, 27, 492-505.
Manolopoulou, H., Xanthopoulos, G., Douros, N. & Lambrinos, G. (2010(. Modified atmosphere packaging storage of green bell peppers: Quality criteria. Biosystems Engineering, 106, 535-543.
Moradi Nezhad, F., Moghaddam Mohammadian, M. & Khayyat, M. (2020). On application foliar acid boric and GA3 of fruit pomegranate of quality and compounds (granatum Punica.L). Journal of Horticulture and Pstharvest Research, 3(1), 101-114.
Mohebi, SH., Mostofi, Y. & Zamani, Z. (2014). Maintaining the quality and increasing the storage life of blueberry fruit using the method of packaging in modified atmosphere, Journal of Production and Processing of Agricultural and Horticultural Products, 5th year, 15, 155-164. [In Persian]
Mohajer Khorasani, M. (2018). A review on food packaging with modified atmosphere, the 3rd International Congress and the 26th National Congress of Food Sciences and Industries of Iran, Tehran. [In Persian]
 Nazari, Z. & Sedaghat, N. (2017). The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life of low-calorie cake cooked by microwave method and estimating the shelf life of the final product using the ASLT method. Quarterly Journal of Food Science and Industry, 82 (15), 372-359. [In Persian]
Negishi, O. & Ozawa, T. (2000).  Inhibition of enzymatic browning and protection of sulfhydryl enzymes by thiol compounds. Photochemistry, 54 (5), 481–487.
Oliveira, M., Abadias, M., Usall, J., Torres, R., Teixidó, N. & Viñas, I. (2015). Application of modified atmosphere packaging as a safety approach to fresh-cut fruits and vegetables – A review, Trends in Food Science & Technology, 46 (1), 13-26.
Ozdemir, M. & Floros, J.D. (2004). "Active food packaging technologies." Critical reviews in Food Science and Nutrient, 44(3), 185- 193.
Payan, M. & Hamedi, M. (2012). An overview of the use of active packaging in the food industry. Quarterly Journal of Food Science and Industry, (38)10, 68-49. [In Persian]
 Porat, R., Weiss, B., Cohen, L. Daus, A. & Cohen, E. (2003). Effect of intermittent warming
and temperature conditioning on the postharvest quality of oroblanco citrus fruits following
long term cold storage. Hort Technology, 13, 70-74.
Sahrai Khoshgerdash, A., Badiei, F. & Yasini Ardakani, S.A. (2013). Effect of nanoemulsion coating containing chitosan on increasing the shelf life of Galb Kohens variety Galb apple during storage, Iran Biosystem Engineering, 45(2), 113-120. [In Persian]
Shalomofer, M., Hosseini, S.A., Kamali, A., Matalabi, A., Pourgholam, R. & Wasfari, R. (2014). Antibacterial and antioxidant effect of nisin on Oncorhynchus mykiss rainbow salmon fillet packaged with modified atmosphere (MAP), Fisheries Journal, Islamic Azad University, Azad Shahr Branch, 8th year, North I, pp. 55-68. [In Persian]
Simon, A. & Gonzalez-Fandos, E. (2005). Ways of prolonging the shelf –life of fresh mushrooms. Mushroom Science, 6, 463-474.
Shick, J. L. & Toivonen, P. M.A. (2002). Refflective trapes at harvest reduce stem browning and improve fruit quality of cherries during subsequent storage. Postharvest and Technology, 25, 117-121.
Snowdon, A.L. (2010). Post-harvest disease and disorders of fruits and vegtables: Volume 2: Vegtables, Manson Publishing.
Soleimani, M., Vakili, N. & Khosravi Darani, K. (2012). Applications of solid state fermentation process in the production of food compounds. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences and Food Industries, 7th year, (5), 929-937. [In Persian].
Xiong, L. (2000). Extend Shelf Life of Mushroom by Using Micro-perforated film (research personal). Department of food science, Pennsylvania State University, 1-22.
Zhang, M., Cui, S.W., Cheung, P.C.K. & Wang, Q. (2007). Antitumorpolysaccharides from mushrooms: a review on their isolation process, structural characteristics and antitumor activity. Trends Food Science &Technology, 18, 4-19.