The Effect of Ultrasound on the Bioactive Compounds of Essential Oil Extracted from the Peel of Orange Thomson Cultivar

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Agricultural Engineering Research Department, West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Urmia, Iran

3 M.Sc. Student of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran.

4 M.Sc. Student of the Department of Microbiology, Tehran Center Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Introduction: In recent years, the use of citrus peel essential oil as a natural preservative in foods has been widely considered. There are several methods to extract the essence oil of orange peel, one of which is the use of ultrasound. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extraction conditions of essential oil by ultrasound method from the peel of Thompson cultivar using the response surface methodology.
Materials and Methods: Independent variables included ultrasound intensity, time and process temperature at three levels of 20, 60 and 100%, 5, 10 and 15 min and 25, 35 and 45 ͦ C were studied, respectively. Efficiency of extraction, total phenolic compounds, DPPH and inhibitory of orange peel essential oils against Aspergillus niger fungus were determined.
Results: The optimal conditions for extracting the essential oil of orange peel were sonication intensity 60%, processing time and temperature of 19 min and 35 °C respectively. At this optimum condition, efficiency of extraction, phenolic compounds and DPPH value of the orange peel essential oils were 13.09%, 42.16 mg/100g and 55%, respectively. The experimental values were in a good agreement with the predicted values. Also, at the optimal conditions, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the orange peel essential oils was 18.5 mm and potassium sorbate was 18.3 mm. Therefore, orange peel essential oil at a concentration equal to potassium sorbate (1000 mg/ml) has antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that the essential oil of orange peel has a potential source of active ingredients like polyphenols that are well-known for their antioxidant properties. Ultrasound extraction is an effective technique for extraction of these compounds. Also orange peel essential oil can be used in foods instead of chemical and synthetic antioxidants and preservatives.



Abraham, J. & Millstone, E. (1989). Food additive controls, Some international comparisons. Food Policy, 14, 43-57.
Almeida, M. L. B., de Souza Freitas, W. E., de Morais, P. L. D., Sarmento, J. D. A. & Alves, R. E. (2016). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential fruit of Ximenia Americana L. Food Chemistry, 192, 1078-1082.
Ambrosio, C. M. S., Ikeda, N. Y., Miano, A. C., Saldaña, E., Moreno, A. M., Stashenko, E., Contreras-Castillo, C. J. & Da Gloria, E. M. (2019). Unraveling the selective antibacterial activity and chemical composition of citrus essential oils. Scientific Reports.  2019, 9,17719 019-54084-3
Arafat, Y., Altemimi, A., Ibrahim, S. A. & Badwaik, L. S. (2020). Valorization of Sweet Lime Peel for the Extraction of Essential Oil by Solvent Free Microwave Extraction Enhanced with Ultrasound Pretreatment. Molecules, 25, 1-10
Bagamboula, C.F., Uyttendaele, M. & Debevere, J. (2004). Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Food Microbiology, 21, 33-42.
Buazzi, M.M. & Marth, E. H. (1991). Mechanism in the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by potassium sorbate. Food Microbiology, 8, 249-56.
Calo, J. R., Crandall, P. G., O'Bryan, C. A. & Ricke, S. C. (2015). Essential oils as antimicrobials in food systems–A review. Food Control, 54, 111–119.
Chan, E., Lim, Y., Ling, S., Tan, S., Lim, K. & Khoo, M. J. L. (2009). Caffeoylquinic acids from leaves of Etlingera species (Zingiberaceae). LWT - Food Science and Technology, 42, 1026-1030.
Chee, H. Y., Kim, H. & Lee, M. H. (2009). In vitro antifungal activity of limonene against Trichophyton rubrum. Microbiology, 37, 243-246.
Csepregi, K., Neugart, S., Schreiner, M. & Hideg, É. (2016). Comparative evaluation of total antioxidant capacities of plant polyphenols. Molecules, 21, 208-225.
FAO. (2020). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Meeting the sustainable development goals.
Fisher, K. & Phillips, C. (2008). Potential antimicrobial uses of essential oils in food, is citrus the answer. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 19, 156-164.
Giwa, S. O., Muhammad, M. & Giwa. A. (2018). Utilizing orange peels for essential oil production. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 13 (1), 17-27.
Heidari Majd, M., Mortazavi, A., Asili, J., Blourian, Sh., Armin, M. & Abdolshahi, A. (2012). Optimization of extraction of phenolic compounds from Flomidoschema parviflora using ultrasound. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 3, 7-13. [In Parsian].
Ji, J. B., Lu, X. H., Cai, M. Q. & Xu, Z. C. (2006). Improvement of leaching process of Geniposide with ultrasound. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 13, 455-462.
Liu, G., Xu, X., Hao, Q. & Gao, Y. (2009). Supercritical CO2 extraction optimization of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil using response surface methodology. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie, 42, 1491–1495.
Montgomery, D.C. (2005). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Response Surface Method and Designs. New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Nazzaro, F., Fratianni, F., Coppola, R. & De Feo, V. (2017). Essential oils and antifungal activity. Pharmaceuticals, 10(4), 86. http,// PMid,29099084.
Nogala-Kalucka, M., Korczak, J., Dratwia, M., Lampart-Szczapa, E., Siger, A. & Buchowski, M. (2005). Changes in antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging potential of rosemary extract and tocopherols in isolated rapeseed oil triacyl glycerols during accelerated tests. Food Chemistry, 93, 227–235.
Pompeu, D., Silva, E. & Rogez, H. J. B. T. (2009). Optimisation of the solvent extraction of phenolic antioxidants from fruits of Euterpe oleracea using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology, 100, 6076-6082.
Rezende, J. L., Fernandes, C. C., Costa, A. O. M., Santos, L. S., Vicente Neto, F., Sperandio, E. M., Souchie, E. L., Colli, A. C., Crotti, E. M. & Miranda, M. L. D. (2020). Antifungal potential of essential oils from two varieties of Citrus sinensis (lima orange and bahia navel orange) in postharvest control of Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb., Fr.) Vuill. Food Science Technology Campinas, 40 (Suppl. 2), 405-409.
Rostagno, M.A., Palma, M. & Barroso, C.G. (2003). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of soy isoflavones. Journal of Chromatography A. 1012, 119–128.
Sharayei, P., Azarpazhooh, E., Zomorodi, S. & Ramaswamy, H.S. (2019). Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel. LWT – Food Science and Technology 101, 342-350.
Silva, E., Souza, J., Rogez, H., Rees, J. F. & Larondelle, Y. J. F. C. (2007). Antioxidant activities and polyphenolic contents of fifteen selected plant species from the Amazonian region. Food Chemistry, 101, 1012-1018.
Skotti, E., Anastasaki, E., Tarantilis, P. & Polissiou, M. (2016). Total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants. Industrial Crops and Products, 53, 46–54.
Tian, Y., Xu, Z., Zheng, B. & Lo, Y. M. (2013). Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 20, 202–208.
Taylor, R.S. L., N. P. Manandhar, J. B. & Towers, G.H.N. (1995). Screening of selected medicinal plants of Nepal for antimicrobial activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 46, 153-159.
Vilkhu, K., Mawson, R., Simones, L. & Bates, D. (2008). Applications and opportunities for ultrasonic assisted extraction in the food industry-A review. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 9,161-169.
Vinatoru, M. (2001). An overview of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs. Ultrasonic Sonochemistry, 8, 303-313.
Viuda-Martos, M., Ruiz-Navajas, Y., Fernández-López, J. & Pérez-Álvarez, J. (2008). Antifungal activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.), mandarin (Citrus reticulate L.), grapefruit (Citrus paradise L.) and orange (Citrus sinensis L.) essential oils. Food Control, 19, 1130-1138.
Wissam, Z., Ghada, B., Wassim, A. & Warid, K. (2012). Effective extraction of polyphenols and proanthocyanidins from pomegranate’s peel. 4(Suppl 3), 675-682.
Zomorodi, Sh., Aazarpazhooh, E. & Sharayei, P. (2020). The effect of ultrasound and microencapsulation on characteristics of bioactive compounds of extracted from grape pomace rashe sardasht cultivar. Food Engineering Research, 91, 97-112. [In Parsian]