بررسی ارزش تغذیه‌ای و عمر انباری گل‌های همیشه‌بهار(Marigold) با کاربرد اسپرمیدین، اسیدسیتریک و پرولین

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گیاهان دارویی، ادویه‌ای و نوشابه‌ای، گروه علوم باغبانی، واحد علی‌آباد کتول، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، علی‌آباد کتول، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، گرگان، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: گل‌های خوراکی به عنوان گل‌های غیرسمی، بی‌ضرری تعریف شده‌اند که در رژیم غذایی انسان مصرف می‌شوند. این گل‌ها حاوی انواع ویتامین‌ها، کربوهیدرات‌ها، پروتئین و آنتی‌اکسیدان‌ها بوده که در تامین نیاز غذایی انسان‌ها نقش مهمی دارند. گل همیشه‌بهار نیز به عنوان یکی از گل‌های رایج خوراکی شناخته شده است که در این پژوهش بهبود ارزش تغذیه‌ای و عمر انباری همیشه‌بهار تحت محلول‌پاشی اسپرمیدین، اسید سیتریک و پرولین مورد بررسی قرارگرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح آماری کاملاً تصادفی با 14 تیمار و شامل دو عامل، محلول‌پاشی با اسپرمیدین، اسید سیتریک و پرولین (صفر، 50 و 100 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر) و ماندگاری پس از برداشت (شروع آزمایش، 5 و 10 روز)، در 3 تکرار و هر تکرار حاوی 10 گل انجام شد. جهت بررسی عمر انباری، نمونه‌ها در دمای 4 درجه سانتی‌گراد نگهداری شدند و صفاتی مانند وزن تر و خشک گل‌ها، کارتنوئید گلبرگ، کربوهیدرات کل، ویتامین ث، فنل، فلاونوئید، آنتی‌اکسیدان کل، پروتئین و عمر انباری گل‌ها ارزیابی گردید.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد در دهمین روز انبارمانی، بیشترین وزن تر و خشک، کارتنوئید، فنل، کربوهیدرات گلبرگ‌ها در تیمار پرولین 100 میلی‌گرم در لیتر، بیشترین ویتامین ث، آنتی‌اکسیدان کل و عمر انباری گل‌ها در تیمار اسید سیتریک 100 میلی‌گرم در لیتر، بیشترین فلاونوئید و پروتئین به ترتیب در تیمار اسپرمیدین 100 میلی‌گرم در لیتر و پرولین 50 میلی‌گرم در لیتر حاصل شد. همچنین تمامی تیمارها تفاوت معنی‌داری در سطح آماری 1 و 5 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد نشان دادند.
نتیجه‌گیری: اثر تمام تیمارها بر متغیرهای اندازه‌گیری شده، معنی‌دار است، ولی بیشترین بهبود صفات فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی با کاربرد غلظت 100 میلی‌گرم در لیتر پرولین، اسید سیتریک و اسپرمیدین بدست آمد. بیشترین عمر انباری گل‌ها توام با حفظ کیفیت آنها با محلول‌پاشی اسید سیتریک 100 میلی‌گرم در لیتر (7/9 روز) و کمترین در تیمار شاهد (3/5 روز) حاصل شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Nutritional Value and Shelf Life of Marigold with the Application of Spermidine, Citric acid and Proline

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Soroori 1
  • E. Danaee 2
  • Kh. Hemmati 3
  • A.R. Ladan Moghadam 4
1 Ph.D. Student of the Medicinal Plant, Department of Horticulture, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of the Department of Horticulture, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of the Department of Horticulture, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
4 Associate Professor of the Department of Horticulture, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran.
چکیده [English]

 
Introduction: Edible flowers contain a variety of vitamins, carbohydrates and proteins and play an important role in the antioxidant activity and control of diseases. Marigold is also known as one of the most common edible flowers. The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement of nutritional value of Marigold flowers by spraying with spermidine, citric acid and proline.
Materials and Methods: This research was carried out in a completely randomized design with 14 treatments including two levels of spermidine, citric acid, proline (0, 50 and 100 mg/L) and postharvest shelf life (Start experiment, 5 and 10 days) in 3 replications. Each replication consists of 10 flowers. Foliar application was performed in three stages of six visible leaves, complete tillering and first bud emergence. The samples were stored at 4°C for post-harvest shelf life. Characteristics including biochemical and nutritional values were evaluated.
Results: The results showed that, at the 10th day after harvest, the highest fresh and dry weight of flower, carotenoid, phenol, carbohydrate were detected in proline 100 mg/L sample, while the highest vitamin C, total antioxidant and postharvest life were observed in citric acid 100 mg/L sample and the highest flavonoid was determined in spermidine 100 mg/L sample and the highest protein was detected in proline 50 mg/L sample. All treatments showed significant differences at 1% and 5% level of control.
Conclusion: All treatments had significant effect on the measured variables, but the best improved characteristics were obtained at the concentration of 100 mg/L proline, citric acid and spermidine. The highest longevity was in citric acid 100 mg/L with 9.7 days and the lowest in control with 5.3 days.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Citric acid
  • Marigold
  • Postharvest life
  • proline
  • Spermidine
Abae, A., Mohammadian, M. & Jaberipoor, P. (2018). Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) Extract. Journal of Food Technology and Nutrition, 15 (2), 108-101 [In Persian].
Abd El-Samad, H., Shaddad, M. A. K. & Barakat, N. (2010). The role of amino acids in improvement in salt tolerance of crop plants. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, 6 (3), 26-37.
Alcazar, R., Bitrian, M., Zarza, X. & Tiburcio, A. F. (2012). Polyamines metabolism and signaling in plant abiotic stress. Recent Advances Pharmacology Science, 5, 29-47.
Ali, Q., Anwar, F., Ashraf. M., Saari, N. & Perveen, R. (2013). Ameliorating Effects of Exogenously Applied Proline on Seed Composition, Seed Oil Quality and Oil Antioxidant Activity of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Drought Stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences,14 (1), 818-835.
Ali, Q., Muhammad, A. & Habib-Ur-Rehman, A. (2007). Exogenously applied proline at different growth stages enhances growth of two maize cultivars grown under water deficit conditions. Pakistan Journal Botany, 39 (4), 1133-1144.
Ali, R. M., Abbas, H. M. & Kamal, R. K. (2007). The effect of treatment with polyamines on dry matter, oil and flavonoid contents in salinity stressed chamomile and sweet marjoram. Plant Soil Environment, 53 (12), 529-543.
Alipour, S., Farahmand, F. & Nasibi, F. (2016). Influence of proline treatment on some physiological morphological characteristics and postharvest life of cut Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). Plant Process and Function, 4 (14), 114-106 [In Persian].
Altunkaya, A. & Gokmen, V.(2008). Effect of various inhibitors on enzymatic browning, total phenol content and total antioxidant activity lettuce. Food Chemistry, 107 (3), 1173-1179.
An, Y., Zhou, P., Xiao, Q. & Shi, D. (2014). Effects of foliar application of organic acids on alleviation of aluminum toxicity in alfalfa. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 177 (3), 421-430.
Aquino-Bolanos, E. N., Urrutia-Hernandez, T. A., Lppez del Castillo-lozano, M., Chavez-Servia, J. L. & Verdalet-Guzman, I. (2013). Physicochemical parameters and antioxidant compounds in edible squash (Cucurbita Pepo) flower stored under controlled atmospheres. Journal of Food quality, 36 (5), 302–308.
Asghary, R. (2012). Effects of chemical treatment on vase-life of Daisy. Iranian biology society, 25 (3), 422-418 [In Persian].
Azarsharif, Z. & Asghari, M. R. (2015). Application of healthy compounds in post-harvest technology of horticultural products. First National Congress for the Development and Promotion of Agricultural Engineering and Soil Science. https://www.civilica.com/Paper-ISCONF01-ISCONF01_098. html [In Persian].
Blokhina, O., Virolainen, E. & Fagerstedt, K. V. (2003). Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: a review. Annals of Botany, 91 (2), 179-194.
Celikel, F. G. & Reed, M. S. (2002). Postharvest handling of stock (matthiula incana). Horticulture Science, 37, 144-147.
Chang, C. C., Yang, M. H., Wen, H. M. & Chern, J. C. (2002). Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 10 (3), 178-182.
Danaee, E. & Abdossi, V. (2013). Investigation of changes in some quantitative, qualitative and enzymatic traits of Gerbera jamesonii dun cultivar with post-harvest application of benzyl adenine and silver nanoparticles. Journal of Applied Biotechnology and Microbiology, 2 (3 and 4), 48-42 [In Persian].
Danaee, E. & Abdossi, V. (2018). Phytochemical and Morphophysiological Responses in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Plant to Application of Polyamines. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 18 (69), 133-125 [In Persian].
Danaee, E. & Abdossi, V. (2021). Effects of silicon and nano-silicon on some morpho-physiological and phytochemical traits of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under salinity stress. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, Vol. 37)1), 98-112 [In Persian].
Darvizheh, H., Zavareh, M. & Ghasmanjad, M. (2017). Effect of proline spraying on biochemical properties of German chamomile in water stress conditions (Matricaria chamomilla L). Journal of Applied Research in Plant Ecophysiology, 4 (1), 35-60 [In Persian].
Dawood, M. G., Taie, H. A. A., Nassar, R. M. A., Abdelhamid, M. T. & Schmidhalter, U. (2014). The changes induced in the physiological, biochemical and anatomical characteristics of Vicia faba by the exogenous application of proline under seawater stress. South African Journal of Botany, 93, 54-63.
Dole, J. M. & Wilkins, H. F. (2004). Floriculture: Principles and Species. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River. New Jersey, pp. 347.
Ebrahimzadeh, M. A., Hosseinimehr, S. J. & Gayekhloo, M. R. (2004). Measuring and comparison of vitamin C content in citrus fruits: introduction of native variety. Indian Journal of Chemistry, 1 (9), 650-652.
Emami, A. (1996). Plant decomposition method. Soil and Water Decomposition Research Institute Publications, pp 982 [In Persian].
Emongor, V. E. (2004). Effects of gibberellic acid on post-harvest quality and vase life of gerbera cut flowers (Gerbera jamesonnii). Agronomy, 3 (3), 191-195.
Ezhilmathi, K., Singh, V., Arora, P. & Sairam, R. K. (2007). Effect of 5-sulfocalicylic acid on antioxidant in relation to vase life of gladiolus cut flower. Plant Growth Regulation, 51 (2), 99-108.
Fonseca, Y. M., Catini, C. D., Vicentini, F. T., Nomizo, A., Gerlach, R. F. & Fonseca, M. J. (2010). Protective effect of Calendula officinalis extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in skin: evaluation of reduced glutathione levels and matrix metalloproteinase secretion. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 127 (3), 596-601.
Gaderi, Kh. & Nazari deljo, M. (2017). Morphophysiological changes and flower quality of Gerbera cut flowers under the influence of inoculation of the culture medium with mycorrhizal fungi in a soilless system. Science and technology of greenhouse crops, 8 (4), 38-27 [In Persian].
Gangali, H. R., Band, A. A., Abad, H. S. S. & Nik, M. M. (2010). Effects of Sowing Date, Plant Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and Various Traits of Calendula officinalis. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 8 (6), 672-679.
Gazim, Z., Rezende, C., Fraga, S., Dias Filho, B., Nakamura, C. & Cortez, D. (2008). Analysis of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis growing in Brazil using three different extraction procedures. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 44, 391-395.
Gerailoo, S., Ghasemnezhad, M. & Shiri, M. (2014). Effect of short time treatment of salicylic acid in delaying flowers senescence in cut rose (Rosa hybrida) cv. Yellow Island. Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology). 27 (2), 309-299 [In Persian].
Gholami Zali, A. & Ehsanzadeh, P. (2018). Exogenous proline improves osmoregulation, physiological functions, essential oil, and seed yield of fennel. Industrial Crops & Products, 111, 133–140.
Hajireza, M., Hadavi, A., Zeynanlu, A., Mirzapour, M. & Naeini, M. (2013). Effect of different levels of citric acid and salicylic acid at pre-harvesting stage on vase-life of rose (Rosa hybrida L.) cut flower. Science and technology of greenhouse Culture, 4 (16), 109-99 [In Persian].
Hoekstra, F. A. & Buitink, J. (2001). Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance. Trends in Plant Science, 8, 431-438.
Irigoyen, J. J., Emerich, D. W. & Sanchez- Dias, M. (1992). Water stress Induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago Sativa) plants. Plant Physiology, 84, 55-60.
Jafari, N. & Hadavi, E. (2012). Growth and essential oil yield of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) As affected by foliar spray of citric acid and salicylic acid. Journal of medicinal and spice plants, 17 (2), 80–83.
Jalili marandi, R. (2012). Postharvest physiology. West Azerbaijan University Jihad Publications, pp. 150-153 [In Persian].
Jeong, H. L., Jin, W. J., Kwang, D. M. & Kee, P. J.(2008). Effects of ant browning agents on polyphenol oxidase activity and total phenolic as related to browning of fresh-cut ‘Fuji’ apple. Asean Food Journal,15 (1),79-87.
Jubany-Marí, T., Munné-Bosch, S. & Alegre, L. (2010). Redox regulation of water stress responses in field-grown plants. Role of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 48 (5), 351-358.
Kannan, N. D. & Kulandaivelu, G. (2011). Drought induced changes in physiological, biochemical and phytochemical properties of Withania somnifera Dun. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5 (16), 3929-3935.
Kelley, K. M., Cameron, A. C., Biernbaum, J. A. & Poff, K. L. (2003). Effect of storage temperature on the quality of edible flowers. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 27 (3), 341-344.
Khalid, K. A. & Teixeira da Silva, J. (2012). Biology of calendula officinalis Linn: focus on pharmacology, biological activities and agronomic practices. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology, 6 (1), 12-27.
Khalil, S. & El-Noemani, A. A. (2012). Effect of irrigation intervals and exogenous proline application in improving tolerance of garden cress plant (Lepidium sativum L.) to water stress. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 8 (1), 157-167.
Kou, L., Turner, E. R. & Luo, Y. (2012). Extending the shelf life of edible flowers with controlled release of 1‐methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging. Journal of Food Science, 77 (5), 188-193.
Kowalczyk, K. & Zielony, T. (2008) Effect of amino plant and asahi on yield and quality of lettuce grown on rockwool. Conference of Bio stimulators in Modern Agriculture. Warsaw, Poland, pp. 35-43.
Leonti, M. (2012). The co-evolutionary perspective of the food-medicine continuum and wild gathered and cultivated vegetables. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 59 (7), 1295-1302.
Lu, B. Li. M. & Yin, R. (2016). Phytochemical content, health benefits, and toxicology of common edible flowers: A review (2000–2015). Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition,56, 130–148.
Miliauskas, G., Venskutonis, P. R. & Van Beek, T. A. (2004). Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal plants and aromatic plant extract. Food Chemistry, 85, 231-237.
Miri, M., Ahmadi, S. & Moradi, P. (2015). Influence of Salicylic Acid and Citric Acid on the Growth, Biochemical Characteristics and Essential Oil Content of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2, 141-146.
Mlcek, J. & Rop, O. (2011). Fresh edible flowers of ornamental plants–A new source of nutraceutical foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 22 (10), 561-569.
Mohammadi, M. & Khademi, A. (2016). Optimizing the quality of green bell pepper fruit in storage by pre-harvest application of calcium chloride and packaging with cellophane film. Journal of Vegetables Science, 4 (2), 11-1 [In Persian].
Mortazavi, N. & Zakielahi, Z. (2011). The effect of citric acid treatment on the shelf life and quality after harvesting cut flowers of clove cultivar. The first national congress of new agricultural sciences and technologies. University of Zanjan, https://www.civilica.com/Paper-MAST01-MAST01_1046.html.
Mustafavi, H., Shekari, F. & Hatami Maleki, H. (2016). Influence of exogenous polyamines on antioxidant defence and essential oil production in valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) plants under drought stress. Acta agriculture Slovenica, 107 (1), 81-91.
Ohe, M., Rapolu, M., Mieda, T., Miyagawa, Y., Yabuta, Y., Yoshimura, K. & Shigeoka, S. (2005) Decline in leaf photo oxidative-stress tolerance with age in tobacco. Plant Science, 168 (6), 1487-1493.
Posmyk, M. M. & Janas, K. M. (2007). Effects of seed hydropriming in presence of exogenous proline on chilling injury limitation in Vigna radiata L. seedlings. Acta Physiologiea Plantarum, 29 (6), 509–517.
Preethi, K. & Chandran, R. K. (2008). Effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract on acute phase proteins, antioxidant defense mechanism and granuloma formation during thermal burns. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 43, 58-64.
Razavi Zadeh, R., Kazem Zadeh, M. & Enteshari, Sh. (2013). Effect of paclobutrazol on some physiological indices of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings under salt stress conditions. Journal of crop physiology- Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz, 5 (19), 35-48 [In Persian].
Roberts, M. (2000). Edible & medicinal flowers. New Africa Books.
Seyoum, A., Asres, K. & El-Fiky, F. K. (2006). Structure radical scavenging activity relationships of flavonoid. Phytochemistry, 67 (18), 2058-2070.
Shafaei Abbasabad, Z. (2012). Effect of postharvest application of citric acid and salicylic acid on storage life and quality attributes of pear cv. Sardrudi. A thesis submitted for the MSc degree in department of horticulture, Pomology. Urmia University [In Persian].
Shetty, K. & Wahlqvist, M. L. (2004). A model for the role of the proline-linked pentose-phosphate pathway in phenolic phytochemical bio-synthesis and mechanism of action for human health and environmental applications. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 13 (1), 1-24.
Singh, A., Kumar, J. & Kumar, P. (2008). Effects of plant growth regulators and sucrose on post harvest physiology, membrane stability and vase life of cut spikes of gladiolus. Plant Growth Regulation, 55, 221-229.
Soltani, F., Hadavi, A. & Ghazi jahani, N. (2017). The effect of foliar application of glutamine, citric acid and malic acid on the growth, quality and morphological traits of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Journal of Plant Cellular and Molecular Biology, 12 (3), 14-5 [In Persian].
Sood, S. & Nagar, P. K. (2008). Post-harvest alterations in polyamines and ethylene in two diverse rose species. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 30 (2), 243-248.
Soroori, S., Danaee, E., Hemmati, Kh. & Ladan Moghadam, A. (2021). The Metabolic Response and Enzymatic Activity of Calendula officinalis L. to Foliar Application of Spermidine, Citric Acid, and Proline under Drought Stress and in a Post-Harvest, Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 23(06).
Spinardi, A. M.(2005). Effect of harvest date and storage on antioxidant systems in pears. Acta Horticulturae, 682, 655-662.
Szabados, L. & Savoure, A. (2009). Proline: a multifunctional amino acid. Trends in Plant Sciences, 15 (2), 89-97.
Veberic, R., Trobec, M., Herbinger, K., Hofer, M., Grill, D. & Stampar, F. (2005) Phenolic compounds in some apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cultivars of organic and integrated production. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 85 (10), 1687-1694.
Vendruscolo, E. C. G., Schuster, I., Pileggi, M., Scapim, C. A., Molinari, H. B. C., Marur, C. J. & Vieira, L. G. E. (2007). Stress-induced synthesis of proline confers tolerance to water deficit in transgenic wheat. Journal of plant physiology, 164 (10), 1367-1376.
Yiu, J. C., Juang, L. D., Fang, D. Y. T., Liu, C. W. & Wu, S. J. (2009). Exogenous putrescine reduces flooding-induced oxidative damage by increasing the antioxidant properties of Welsh onion. Scientia Horticulture, 120, 306-314.
Zarbakhsh, S. & Rastegar, S. (2017). The effect of salicylic acid and gum arabic on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Ziziphus mauritina Lam during storage. Journal of Food Technology and Nutrition, 14 (2), 98-87 [In Persian].