تهیه ژله چای ترش کم کالری با ژلاتین پوست مرغ و استویا و بررسی خواص کیفی آن

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه مهندسی علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، مازندران، ایران

2 استاد گروه مهندسی علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، مازندران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه شیمی مواد غذایی، دانشکده صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گلستان، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: هدف از این پژوهش تولید ژله کم­کالری با استفاده از چای ترش به عنوان عامل رنگ­دهنده طبیعی، ژلاتین استخراج شده از ضایعات پوست مرغ همراه با شیرین کننده استویا می­باشد.
مواد و روش­ها: در بخش اول این پژوهش ژلاتین پوست مرغ با پیش فرآیند قلیایی- اسیدی و با استفاده از سود 1 نرمال و اسیدکلریدریک 05/0 نرمال استخراج شد. ژلاتین در غلظت­های یک و دو درصد (وزنی)، استویا با سطوح جایگزینی صفر تا صد درصد با شکر و چای ترش به میزان 20 درصد وزنی برای 100 گرم ژله استفاده شد که 48 ساعت پس از تولید ژله، آزمون­های pH، بریکس، رطوبت، اسیدیته، فعالیت آبی، سفتی بافت، رنگ، آنالیز حسی و آزمون میکروبی انجام شد. آزمایشات در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی بر پایه آزمایش فاکتوریل با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS انجام شد و با آزمون چنددامنه­ای دانکن در سطح احتمال 5 درصد میانگین تیمارها مقایسه شدند.
یافته­ها: نتایج نشان داد که افزایش غلظت ژلاتین و سطوح جایگزینی شکر بر pH نمونه­ها تاثیر معنی­داری نداشت. همچنین با افزایش درصد ژلاتین از 1 به 2 درصد سفتی بافت و L* به طور معنی­داری افزایش و رطوبت کاهش پیدا کرد (05/0p <). در حالی که بر پارامترهای بریکس، فعالیت آبی، a* و b* تفاوت معنی­داری نداشت(05/0p>). در ارتباط با افزایش سطوح جایگزینی متفاوت شکر از صفر تا صد درصد با استویا رطوبت، فعالیت آبی و فاکتورهای L*، a*، b*  به طور معنی­داری افزایش و بریکس نمونه­ها به طور معنی­داری کاهش پیدا کرد (05/0p <).
نتیجه گیری: ویژگی­های حسی و فیزیکوشیمیایی نمونه­های ژله چای ترش نشان داد که استفاده از ژلاتین پوست مرغ و شیرین کننده استویا می­تواند جایگزین مناسبی در فرمولاسیون ژله کم کالری با حفظ ویژگی­های فیزیکی، شیمیایی، حسی- چشایی باشد و نمونه دارای ژلاتین 2 درصد و جایگزینی 25% استویا با شکر از نظر پذیرش کلی در ارزیابی حسی به عنوان تیمار برتر انتخاب شد هم­چنین گیاه چای ترش به خاطر داشتن خواص دارویی، ویژگی­های فراسودمند را برای محصول ژله چای ترش فراهم می­کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Preparation of Low Calorie Sour Tea Jelly Using Stevia and Gelatin of Chicken Skin- Evaluation of the Product

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Yazdani 1
  • Z. Raftani Amiri 2
  • H. Shahiri Tabarestani 3
1 Graduated of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
2 Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Golestan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The aim of this study was to produce low-calorie jelly using sour tea as a natural coloring agent, gelatin extracted from chicken skin with stevia as sweetener.
Materials and Methods: Chicken skin gelatin was extracted by using alkaline-acid pre-treatment with 1 N of NaOH and 0.05 N hydrochloric acid. Gelatin was used at the concentrations of one and two percent (wt.%), Stevia with 0 to 100% replacement rates with sugar and sour tea at 20 wt.% for 100 g of jelly and 48 hours after gel production, pH measurement, Brix, moisture content, acidity, water activity, tissue stiffness, color, sensory analysis and microbial tests were performed. Experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design based on factorial experiment using SPSS software and compared with Duncan's multiple range test at 5% probability level.
Results: The results showed that by increasing gelatin concentration and the level of sucrose replacement with stevia did not have a significant effect on pH. By increasing the concentration of gelatin, texture hardness and L*, significantly increased and moisture decreased (p < 0.05), whereas the parameters of brix, water activity, a* and b* of samples were not significantly different (p> 0.05). By increasing the levels of sucrose replacement with stevia and decrease of solids content the moisture, water activity and L *, a *, b * factors were significantly increased and the brix of the samples decreased.
Conclusion: Sensory and physicochemical properties of sour jelly samples showed that using chicken skin gelatin and stevia as sweetener could be a good alternative to low-calorie jelly formulation by preserving physical, chemical and sensory properties. Due to medicinal properties, sour tea provides beneficial contribution to sour jelly product

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chicken skin
  • Gelatin
  • Jelly
  • Sour tea
  • Stevia
Acosta, O., Viquez, F. & Cubero, E. (2008). Optimization of low calorie mixed fruit jelly by response surface methodology. Food Quality and Preference, 19 (1), 79-85.
 
Adisak, A. (2010). Optimization of Ingredients for the Manufacture of Sugar-free Konjac Jelly Drinks by Response Surface Methodology. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(8), 3546-3552.
Ajeli, A., Aryanfar, A. & Safari, A. (2014). The use of natural stevia sweetener as a substitute for sucrose in orange drink and its physicochemical and sensory properties. Third National Conference on Food Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, Quchan Branch [In Persian]. [1]
Akhavan Mahdavi, S., Jafari, S. M., Assadpour, E. & Ghorbani, M. (2016). Storage stability of encapsulated barberry’s anthocyanin and its application in jelly formulation. Journal of Food Engineering. 1-8.
Almedia, P., Silva Lannes, S., Calarge, F., Brito Farias, T. & Curvelo Santana, J. (2012). Characterization of gelatin from chicken feet. Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 6(11), 1029-1032.
Anon. (2013). Jelly Products Test Features and Methods. Standard and Industrial Research of Iran, Amendment No. 1, No. 2682 [In Persian].
Anon. (2008). Food and Animal Nutrition Microbiology Comprehensive Method for Counting Yeasts and Molds Part One: Colon Counting Methods for Equivalent Products with Equal Activity or Less than 0.95. Standard and Industrial Research of Iran, No. 2-10899 [In Persian].
Anon. (2017). Jam Microbiology, Marmalade and Jelly, Characteristics and Methods of Microbiological Testing. Standard and Industrial Research of Iran, No. 8898, First Review [In Persian].
Boland, A. B., Buhr, K., Giannouli, P. & Van Ruth, S. M. (2004). Influence of gelatin, starch, pectin and artificial saliva on the release of 11 flavour compounds from model gel systems. Food Chemistry, 86(3), 401-411.
Boland, A. B., Delahunty, C. M. & Van Ruth, S. M. (2006). Influence of the texture of gelatin gels and pectin gels on strawberry flavour release and perception. Food Chemistry, 96, 452-460.
Edwards, W. P. (2000). The Science of Sugar Confectionery. The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, pp. 166.
 
Farmani, J. & Rostammiri, L. (2015) Characterization of chicken waste fat for application in food technology. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization springer 9.2, 143-150.
Fatemi, H. (2008). Food Chemistry, Tehran Publishing Company [In Persian].
Francisca, L. S., Kristensen, M., Mikkelsen, C. B. & Sandau, N. (2010). Sweet confectionery products, U.S. patent 12/447, 586.
Gramza, M. & Regula, J. (2007). Use of Tea Extracts (Camelia sinensis) in Jelly Candies as Polyphenols Sources in Human Diet. Medical and Life Sciences Health Management, p. 43 – 46.

Hashemi, N., Rabiee, H., Tavakolipour, H. & Gazerani, S. (2014). Effect of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) as a Substitute for Sugar on Physicochemical, Rheological and Sensory Properties of Dietary Saffron Syrup. Saffron Agronomy & Technology, 2, 303-310 [In Persian].

Hosseini Nezhad, M., Mohtashami, M. & Kamali, M. (2015). Optimizing the formula of a low calorie fruit powder jelly using sucralose and isomalt. Research and Innovation in Food Science and Technology. Volume 4, Number 1, 74-84 [In Persian].
Javadzade, M., Rezvani Moghadam, P. & Asili, J. (2013). Evaluation of the pharmacological effects of sour tea medicinal plant from the perspective of traditional medicine. The first conference on the use of medicinal plants in lifestyle and traditional medicine. Torbat Heydariyeh, Torbat Heydariyeh University [In Persian].
Khalilian, S., Shahidi, F., Elahi, M. & Mohebi, M. (2013). Investigation of tissue characteristics and acceptance of fruit pastilles based on cantaloupe puree and the relationships between them using response level methods and analysis of the main components. Journal of Innovation in Science and Food Technology. 5(4), 81-76 [In Persian].
Khouryieh, H. A., Aramouni, F. & Herald, T. J. (2005). Physical, chemical and sensory properties of sugar-free jelly. Journal of Food Quality, 28(2), 179-190.
Kuan, Y. H., Nafchi, A. M., Huda, N., Ariffin, F. & Karim, A. A. (2016). Effects of sugars on the gelation kinetics and texture of duck feet gelatin. Food Hydrocolloids, doi: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2016.02.025.
Lee, H. E., Yeom, J., Ha, S. M. & Bae, H. D. (2010). Development of Banana Peel Jelly and its antioxidant and textural properties. Food Science and Biotechnology, 19(2), 449-455.
Moghaddas Kia, E., Nabipour, M., Ghasempour, Z., Naseri, L. & Ehsani, A. (2018). A survey about qualitative and sensory indices of edible jelly containing pomegranate concentrate and Lactobacillus paracasei. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 15 (77), 88-79 [In Persian].
Rezaee Zadeh, A. & Raftani Amiri, Z. (2016). Extraction and characterization of gelatin from chicken feet and its application in cantaloupe jelly. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research journal, 13(2), 322-332 [In Persian].
Sahan, N., Yasar, K. & Hayaloglu, A. A. (2008). Physical, chemical and flavour quality of non-fat yogurt as affected by a β-glucan hydrocolloidal composite during storage. Journal of Food Hydrocolloids, 22, 1291-1297.
ShahiriTabarestani, H., Maghsoudlou, Y., Motamedzadegan, A. & SadeghiMahoonak, A. R. (2010). Optimization of physico-chemical properties of gelatin extracted from fish skin of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchusmykiss). Bioresource Technology, 101, 6207-6214.
Sousa, N. M., Matias, C. & Laureano, O. (1997). The texture of low calorie grape juice jelly. European food research and technology/ Z Lebensm unters forsch A. 205, 140–142.
Strauss, G. & Gibson, S. (2004). Plant phenolics as cross-linkers of gelatin gels and gelatin-based coacervates for use as food ingredients. Food Hydrocolloids 18, 81-89.
Trachootham, D., Songkaew, W., Hongsachum, B., Wattana, Ch., Changkluengdee, N. & Karapoch, J. (2015). Jelly may improve quality of life and decrease tube feeding demand in head and neck cancer patients, Support care cancer. 23, 1421–1430.
Ventura, J., Alarcón, A., Roman-Ramos, R., Campos, E., Maria, L., Reyes- Vega, V., Daniel, B., Iván Jasso E. & Cristóbal, N. (2013). Quality and antioxidant properties of a reduced-sugar pomegranate juice jelly with an aqueous extract of pomegranate peels. Food Chemistry, 136, 109–115.

Yazdani, F., Raftani Amiri, Z. & Shahiri Tabarestani, H. (2018). Optimization of Pre-treatment Conditions for Producing Gelatin from Chicken Skin by Response Surface Methodology. Journal of New Food Technologies, 5(3), 415-426 [In Persian].