اثر فرآیند خشک‌کردن بر خصوصیات کمى و کیفى برگ گیاه ریحان

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم و صنایع غذایی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشیارگروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: ریحان حاوی ترکیبات فنولیک بوده و بذر آن حاوی موسیلاژ می­باشد. با بررسی­های انجام شده اسانس این گیاه و مخصوصا ترکیبات فنیل پروپانوئیدی آن به عنوان ترکیبات اصلی دارویی این گیاه شناخته شده است.
مواد و روش­ها: در این تحقیق، برگ ریحان توسط سه روش سایه (به عنوان روش سنتی)، آون (۴۰ و ۶۰ درجه سلسیوس) و مایکروویو (۱۸۰ و ۳۶۰ وات) به عنوان روش صنعتی در جهت بالا بردن نرخ انتقال حرارت در مدت زمان کوتاه و بررسی خصوصیات کیفی این محصول انتخاب و فاکتورهای موثر در کیفیت برگ این گیاه مانند رطوبت، آهن و پتاسیم، ویتامین ث و ترکیبات پلی فنل کل اندازه­گیری شد.
یافته­ها: مرحله اول  خشک کردن که در آن آهنگ خشک شدن ثابت می­باشد و توسط عوامل بیرونی کنترل می­شود تنها در روش خشک کردن با سایه دیده شد، ولی در دو روش دیگر تقریبا این مرحله حذف گردیده است. روش خشک کردن باعث افزایش ضریب انتقال جرم می­شود و این ضریب در حالت جابجایی اجباری از طبیعی بیشتر است بنابراین در روش خشک کردن با آون در مقایسه با دو روش دیگر سرعت انتقال جرم بالاتری دیده می­شود.با افزایش توان مایکروویو، زمان خشک شدن کاهش یافت. مقادیرآهن و پتاسیم و ویتامین ث تعیین شده نشان داد که تفاوت معنی­داری بین روش­های مختلف خشک کردن وجود دارد (05/0 p<). از نظر مدت زمان خشک شدن، طولانى­ترین زمان خشک­کردن مربوط به سایه به مدت ۱۸۰۰ دقیقه بود. بیشترین میزان ویتامین ث، آهن و ترکیبات فنلی در تیمار خشک شده در سایه بود.
نتیجه­ گیری: خشک کردن برگ ریحان با استفاده از خشک کردن در سایه و مایکروویو با توان ۱۸۰ وات به دلیل حفظ قابل ملاحظه میزان مواد مؤثره در گیاه نسبت به تیمارهاى دیگر مطلوب­تر می­باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Drying Process on the Physiochemical Characteristics and Quality of Basil Leaf Leaves

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Bostani 1
  • N. Asefi 2
1 M. Sc Student of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Basil contains high phenolic compounds and its seeds contain mucilages. By investigation the essential oils of this plant, and especially its phenylpropanoid compounds, have been identified as the main medicinal product.
Materials and Methods: In this research, basil leaves were dried by three methods: shadow, drying oven method at 40 and 60° C and microwave method at 180 and 360 W. In order to increase the heat transfer in short time some effective factors concerned with the leaves, namely moisture, iron, potassium,vitamin C and polyphenol contents were determined.
Results: The first stage of drying rate is constant and controlled by external factors, was seen only in the shadow drying method. In two other methods, this stage has been almost eliminated.  Forced convection heat transfer coefficients is higher than natural convection coefficient. Therefore in the oven drying method, mass transfer rate is higher than the other methods. With increasing microwave power, drying time decreased. The determined amounts of iron, potassium and vitamin C showed that there is a significant difference between different drying methods (P <0.05).
The longest drying time was in shadow with1800 minutes and the highest amount of vitamin C, iron and phenolic compounds was in the dried treatment in the shade.
Conclusion: According to the results, it can be stated that the drying of the basil leaf using shade drying and microwave drying at 180 W, are desirable because the amount of active ingredients in the plant is considerably retained.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Basil
  • Drying
  • Hot Air Oven
  • microwave

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